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Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease. Book • 4th Edition • Edited by: Ann M. Coulston, Carol J. Boushey, Linda M. Delahanty.
Table of contents
- Low-glycemic index diet
- Nutritional disease
- How Does Food Impact Health?
- Why Good Nutrition is Important | Center for Science in the Public Interest
Smoking has the following negative health effects: lowers immunity, making you more likely to get bronchitis, colds, and other infections; interferes with breathing by causing wheezing and asthma; causes snoring and sleep apnea; impairs fine motor skills, leaving you shaky and unable to control your hands.
Low-glycemic index diet
Athletes who smoke have decreased endurance and are more likely to suffer from exercise-induced asthma. Problems exist, however, if smoking has done permanent damage. Severe smoking-related diseases, including cancer, emphysema, and coronary artery disease, are permanent. See Your Doctor Because doctors and health professionals are trained to recognize, treat, and prevent illness, following their advice is recommended. Each person has different risks of diseases based on genetics and other health history; therefore health recommendations can be slightly different for each individual.
- Disease Prevention.
- 16 Foods to Cure Common Illnesses.
- Great Expectations: Teachers Edition: Annotated!
- Nutrient deficiencies!
Still, following the basic recommendations outlined below will reduce your risk of severe diseases. This article discusses ways to prevent illness and disease, in addition to exercise. In this article, you will find: Beyond exercise More super nutrients. Beyond exercise Preventing Illness and Disease Without question, the most important positive action you can take to prevent illness and disease is exercise.
Exercise prevents a long list of diseases that can cause chronic or severe illness, disability, and even death, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, vascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis. Exercise also prevents mental health illness and disease disorders, including depression, anxiety, and stress. While some of these disease processes can be reversed with exercise and healthy life-style, some cannot.
They may include deficiencies or excesses in the diet, obesity and eating disorders , and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease , hypertension , cancer , and diabetes mellitus. Nutritional diseases also include developmental abnormalities that can be prevented by diet, hereditary metabolic disorders that respond to dietary treatment , the interaction of foods and nutrients with drugs , food allergies and intolerances, and potential hazards in the food supply.
All of these categories are described in this article. For a discussion of essential nutrients , dietary recommendations, and human nutritional needs and concerns throughout the life cycle, see nutrition, human. Although the so-called diseases of civilization—for example, heart disease , stroke , cancer, and diabetes—will be the focus of this article, the most significant nutrition-related disease is chronic undernutrition, which plagues more than million people worldwide.go to site
Undernutrition is a condition in which there is insufficient food to meet energy needs; its main characteristics include weight loss, failure to thrive, and wasting of body fat and muscle. Low birth weight in infants , inadequate growth and development in children , diminished mental function, and increased susceptibility to disease are among the many consequences of chronic persistent hunger , which affects those living in poverty in both industrialized and developing countries.
The largest number of chronically hungry people live in Asia , but the severity of hunger is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa. At the start of the 21st century, approximately 20, people, the majority of them children, died each day from undernutrition and related diseases that could have been prevented. The deaths of many of these children stem from the poor nutritional status of their mothers, as well as the lack of opportunity imposed by poverty.
Only a small percentage of hunger deaths is caused by starvation due to catastrophic food shortages.
How Does Food Impact Health?
During the s, for example, worldwide famine epidemic failure of the food supply more often resulted from complex social and political issues and the ravages of war than from natural disasters such as droughts and floods. Malnutrition is the impaired function that results from a prolonged deficiency—or excess—of total energy or specific nutrients such as protein , essential fatty acids , vitamins , or minerals. This condition can result from fasting and anorexia nervosa ; persistent vomiting as in bulimia nervosa or inability to swallow ; impaired digestion and intestinal malabsorption; or chronic illnesses that result in loss of appetite e.
Malnutrition can also result from limited food availability, unwise food choices, or overzealous use of dietary supplements.
Why Good Nutrition is Important | Center for Science in the Public Interest
Chronic undernutrition manifests primarily as protein -energy malnutrition PEM , which is the most common form of malnutrition worldwide. Also known as protein-calorie malnutrition, PEM is a continuum in which people—all too often children—consume too little protein, energy, or both. At one end of the continuum is kwashiorkor , characterized by a severe protein deficiency, and at the other is marasmus, an absolute food deprivation with grossly inadequate amounts of both energy and protein.
An infant with marasmus is extremely underweight and has lost most or all subcutaneous fat. The cause is a diet very low in calories from all sources including protein , often from early weaning to a bottled formula prepared with unsafe water and diluted because of poverty. Poor hygiene and continued depletion lead to a vicious cycle of gastroenteritis and deterioration of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract , which interferes with absorption of nutrients from the little food available and further reduces resistance to infection.
If untreated, marasmus may result in death due to starvation or heart failure.
Kwashiorkor , a Ghanaian word meaning the disease that the first child gets when the new child comes, is typically seen when a child is weaned from high-protein breast milk onto a carbohydrate food source with insufficient protein.